Millennium development goals scorecard in Nigeria as the target date winds down.
GOAL 1: TO ERADICATE EXTREME POVERTY AND HUNGER
Target 1c: Halve between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people who suffer from hunger.
Indicator 1.8: Prevalence underweight children under five year of age.
In the year 2008, the proportion of underweight children going by the national average was 23.1%. It went up to 27.4% in 2012 but declined to 25.5% in 2014. For lack of data, concrete trend cannot be established with this report. Although Nigeria has attained the hunger target according to other reports, yet more interventions are needed not only for the under-five children but for their mothers in order to alleviate them completely from the scourge of hunger.
GOAL 2: ACHIEVE UNIVERSAL PRIMARY EDUCATION
Target 2A: Ensure that, by 2015, children everywhere, boys and girls alike, will be able to complete a full course of primary schooling.
Indicator 2.1: Net enrolment in primary education.
In 2014, The states with very high attendance ratios included Anambra (94%), Delta (92.80), Imo (90.7), Lagos (92), Ondo (92.4), Osun (91.6), Edo (91.0), Ekiti (93.6) and FTC (94.1) while the least were Bauchi (29.9), Sokoto (24.80), Yobe (23.7), Zamfara (37.80).
At the national level, the net attendance ratio was 61% in 2008 and it increased to 71% in 2012. In 2014, there was a shortfall of 2.3% and the net attendance for 2014 thus dropped to 68.7%. When classified by sectors, net attendance in the urban (84.3%) was much higher than in the rural areas (62.2%). Across the geopolitical zones, it was very encouraging in the South East (90.5%), South South (88.1%), South West (87%) and North Central (80.2%). But in the North West (50.5%) and particularly North East (42.5%) net attendance was not impressive.
Although 100% attendance is expected, the result shows that Nigeria is on track.
Indicator 2.2: Primay Six Completion Rate
Nationally completion rate according to fig. 2.2 in 2004 was 82%. It increased to 87.7% in 2012 and dropped to 74.0 in 2014. Within the 2014, the completion rate was higher in the urban (84.4%) when compared with the rural (69.7). In the zones, completion rate was highest in South East (98.7%) zone, followed by South West (94.1%). Primary six completion rate was poorest in the North East (49.5%) zone. Nigeria is also on track.
Indicator 2.3: Literacy rate of 15 – 24 years, women
The literacy rate of youth women between 2004 and 2014 at the national level increased from 60.4% in 2004 to 80% in 2008. In 2012, it declined to 66%. Although it slightly appreciated in 2014 (66.7%), but that is insignificant. At the state level, literacy of youth women aged 15 – 24 was very encouraging in states like Rivers (98%), Enugu (97%), Imo (95%), Akwa Ibom (95%), Delta (94.1%), Anambra (93%), Ekiti (92.7%), Abia (91.3%). Conversely, literacy rate among woman of age 15 – 24 was poor in Sokoto (10.7%), Bauchi (13%), Yobe (16%) etc.
Sectorally, the survey showed that there were more literate youth women (85.3%) in the urban as against the 57.8% recorded in the rural areas. In the zones the literate youth women in the South East (93.5%) were much higher than the rest of the zones. North East (33.0%) and North West (35%) had the lowest percentage of literate youth women in 2014.
GOAL 3: PROMOTE GENDER EQUALITY AND EMPOWER WOMEN
Target 3.A: Eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary education preferably by 2005, and at all levels of education no later than 2015.
Indictor 3.1: Ratio of girls to boys in Primary and Secondary education
Nationally, the gender parity in the primary school in 2008 was 0.9. The interpretation is that in every 9 girls in primary school in 2008, there were 10 boys. It increased to 1.0 in 2012 implying 10 girls in every 10 boys. The parity index increased to 1.02 in 2014. The rural (1.01) and urban (1.01) were equal. The GDIs across the zones were exceedingly encouraging. In the secondary schools in 2012, the gender parity index was 1.02. The decline to 1.01 in 2014 was insignificant. There were no disparity in both the rural (1.0) and urban (90.98) in 2012. Nigeria has already achieved gender parity index as illustrated in fig 3.1a, being a chart of gender parity in both primary and secondary schools distributed by state in 2014.
GOAL 4: REDUCED CHILD MORTALITY
Target: Reduce by two thirds between 1990 and 2015, the mortality rate among children under five years old.
Indicator 4.1: Under five Mortality Rate (U5MR)
About ten years ago specifically 2004 (201), Nigeria’s average under five mortality rate was very high. But right from then, there has been a steady decrease till 2014 when there was a record of only 89 children dying before their fifth birthday in every 1000 live births. See Fig4.1. Although the national average in 2014 was 89, yet some states had numbers much higher than the national average. The states include Kogi (169), Katsina (155), Kaduna (167) etc. The death prevalence in 2014 however was much more in the rural areas with 98 deaths against the 66 in the urban. North West zone with 121 and North East zone with 78 had the highest under five mortality rate than the other zones. South West zone had 45 as the least. If the rate in 2004 is adopted as the base value, it implies that some zones and states would have met the MDGs target on under five mortality before 2015.
Indicator 4.2: Infant Mortality Rate (IMR)
The deaths of infants under one year per 1,000 live births in Nigeria was also very high in 2004 where 100 children died without seeing their first birth day in every 1,000 live births. The deaths of infants have been on the decrease since 2008 in which 75 infants died per 1000 till 2014 with a record of 58. The prevalence of infant mortality in 2014 was more prominent in the rural areas with a record of 63 deaths than the urban with a record of 46 deaths per 1000 live births. Across the zones, the North West with 77%, followed by South East with 69, had more infants dying without seeing their first birth day in every 1000 live births.
Indicator 4.3 – Proportion of one year old children immunized against measles.
Measles vaccination is becoming popular and the coverage is improving though slowly. Fig4.3 shows that between 2004 and 2012, the measles vaccination of children under one year of age staggered between 50% and 55.8%. In 2004, there was a record of 50%. It went down to 41.4% in 2008 and appreciated again to 55.8% in 2012. There was a significant increase in 2014 in which 63.1% of children under one year were immunized against measles. The analysis of the survey result by geo-political zones showed that over 80% of one year old children were immunized in South East (82.4%), South West (81.2%) and South South (80.3%). Although North Central (77.0) was not bad, yet North East (42.4) and North West (35.4%) were not encouraging. One year old children were predominantly immunized in the urban areas (56.2%) than the rural areas (39.95).
GOAL 5: IMPROVED MATERNAL HEALTH
Target 5.A. Reduce by three quarters, between 1990 and 2015, the Maternal Mortality Ratio.
The 2004 Maternal Mortality ratio of 800 in every 100,000 live births crashed to 545 in 2008. The performance tracking survey of 2012 recorded a further decrease to 350 per 100,000 live births and the downward trend consistently maintained its course to 2014 with a record of 243 per 100,000 live births. As a remark, the 2014 estimation was strictly based on women within the age bracket of 15 to 49 years, as opposed to the 2012 age bracket of 15 to infinity. The rationale behind this is that the child bearing age for women is within that bracket. Based on this, Nigeria is at the verge of meeting the target on maternal mortality.
Indicator 5.2: Proportion of Births attended by skilled health care attendants.
A zonal disaggregation of this trend shows that of the children born within the period of reference, South East (89.1%) had the highest record of delivery assisted by skilled birth attendant. Eighty three percent was recorded in South West. North Central and South South zones respectively had a record of 67.2% and 64.4%. The least were in North East (30.8%) and North West (24.8%). Sectorally, the urban areas with 79.2 had higher proportion of deliveries assisted by trained personnel’s while the rural areas had 46.6%.
Target 5B: Achieve universal access to reproductive health by 2015
Indictor 5.3: Contraceptive Prevalence Rates:
This is the percentage of women aged 15 – 49 years that use any method of family planning. The use of contraceptive is gradually gaining general acceptance. In 2004, only 8.2% of women within the stated age bracket used contraceptive measures for family planning. The percentage increased to 14.6% (about 78% increases) in 2008. It appreciated further in both 2012 (17.3%) and 2014 (18.5%). Contraceptive prevalence was highest in South East zone with a of 43%, followed by South West (24.0%). The prevalence in the urban areas (16.7%) was higher than that of the rural (9.7%).
Indicator 5.5: Antenatal Care Coverage.
In 2008, only 8.2% of the pregnant women attended antenatal for one visit while 44.8% attended for at least 4 visits. In 2012 66.3% of them attended for at least one visit and 57.8% for at least four visits. The record in 2014 was that about 25% of the women that were pregnant never attended antenatal visits. At the same time, 68.9% attended at least once while 60.6% attended for four times and over. The number of visits for antenatal was encouraging in the urban where 75.9% of pregnant women had at least four visits. The rural rears were no exception as 51.6% of the pregnant women visited over four times. With regard to the zones, South East (88.3%) had the highest number of visits. South West (78%), South South (64.1) and North Central (65.80) had encouraging number of antenatal visits. But very few pregnant women in North West (38.1%) and North East (32.9%) attended antenatal up to four times.
Indicator 5.6: Unmet Needs for Family Planning
In 2004, there were about 17% of women in this category. They increased to 20.2% in 2008 and 21.5% in 2012. However, there was a marginal increase in 2014 (22.2%). The prevalence of unmet need was more in the rural sector (22.4%) than the urban (21.8%). Across the zones, there were higher incidences of unmet need in North West (27.4) and North East (25.8%) than the rest of the zones. The experience was very low in the South East (11.4%).
GOAL 6: COMBAT HID/AIDS, MALARIA AND OTHER MAJOR DISEASES
Target 6.C: Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the incidence of malaria and other major diseases
Indicator 6.3: Percentage of Young Women aged 15 – 24 years with comprehensive knowledge of HIV/AIDs
Knowledge of HIV/AIDS and related diseases among the young women is increasing. There is a general consciousness that HIV/AIDS is real. In 2004, only 18.3% of the young ladies within age 15 – 24 years had comprehensive and correct knowledge about HIV/AIDS prevention, and transmission and others. There was a rise in this percentage in 2012 (33%). There was not much difference in the record for 2014 (32.8%). Thus the trend remained at the national level. But in the sectors, the urban areas with 37.8% showed that there were more young women with comprehensive knowledge than the 30.5% in the rural. At the level of the zones, a large percentage of the young ladies in North Central had comprehensive knowledge. Besides the North Central zone were the South East (37.3%), South West (34.3%) and South South zone (33.2%). Both the North West (26.5%) and particularly North East (23.2%) had little proportion of young ladies with comprehensive knowledge about HIV/AIDs.
Indicator 6.7: Proportion of children under 5 sleeping in insecticide – treated bed nets
It has to be recalled that only 2.2% of children in 2003 slept in insecticide treated nets. The percentage went up to 34.6% in 2012. The trend showed no difference in 2014 as 34.7% of the children slept in insecticide treated bed nets in the night preceding the survey. Across the sectors showed that the urban areas (41.7%) had more children who slept in insecticide treated bed nets than the rural with a record of 31.2%. In the zone the percentage of children sleeping in insecticide treated bed nets lingered between 47% and 17.8%. Similarly, 28.5% of pregnant women slept in insecticide treated bed nets in 2014 against the 30.3% record of 2012. Majority of the pregnant women were from the South West (45.3%) zone as compared to the least in North East (16%) zone.
GOAL 7: ENSURE ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY
Target 7.C: Halve by 2015, the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation
Indicator 7.8: Proportion of population using an improved drinking water source
And Indicator 7.9: Proportion of population using an improved sanitation facility
Fifty seven percent of Nigeria households had access to improved water source in 2004. In 2008, there was a slight decrease to 55.8 percent. Fifty seven percent was recorded again in 2012 while in 2014 there was an increase to 62.2%. Access to improved sources of drinking water has been unstable in Nigeria. Although in 2014, the urban areas recorded about 74.6% against the 57.6% of the rural, yet access within the zones showed that it was only in South West that a 70.6% access to improved sources was recorded. The rest of the zones lingered between 68% and 53%.
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